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© 2005-2021. International Institute of Engineering in Environment
and Human Safety
(IEHS). Copyright law of Russian Federation

The International Institute of Engineering in Environment and Human Safety (IEHS) was created as a structural subdivision of St. Petersburg State University of aerospace instrumentation engineering after a decision taken by the academic council of the university on the 15th of February 2005. The purpose of IEHS is the research and development of Nature-Technogenic control systems, devices and elements as well as corresponding "digital" (information technologies) design and production systems. Since 2015 IEHS has been part of the “Non-profit partnership Innovative and Technological center «Aerospace»”.

In recent times, the rapidly increasing rate at  which technogenic factors are negatively impacting our ecosystem and the intensity of their influence, has already gone beyond the limits at which our ecosystem is capable of naturally keeping our environment habitable and thus poses a direct threat towards the life and health of the populace. A 15-16% annual increase in the volume of toxic waste, due to technogenic processes has been officially presented as a problem of national importance.

In order to prevent an ecological catastrophe, international and Russian research centers are actively working on developing methods, systems and equipment both for environmental monitoring and for the cleaning of hazardous emissions and discharges already in our environment.

According to forecasts, over the next 30-40 years (if the current trends of industrial development remains the same), the state of health of the Russian population will be 50-70% dependent on the quality of its habitat (with the current state at 20-40%), and the costs of material resources, energy and labor to stabilize environmental conditions will become the largest expenditure of the economy, exceeding 40-50% of the gross national product.

At the moment, there are no reliable systems that can constructively solve the problem of minimizing pollutants. Implemented in this area systems (see Fig. 1) based on methods of local diagnostics of pollutant sources, with the further intervention by the human factor as an obligatory decisive element of the control system aimed at reducing the level of pollutants.

New design and production approaches are required to develop such complex control systems, which presently are merged under the umbrella "digital design and production".

On the basis of numerous studies, IEHS offers two projects, which along with nation-wide ones include commercial offers:
1. Closed-loop "Nature-Technogenic" control system for the minimization of pollutants in the emissions from stationary source enterprises into the environment.
2. Closed-loop system for the neutralization of harmful emissions in exhaust gases for cars.
The descriptions of these projects are stated below.
Fig.1 The open-loop “Nature-Technogenic” control system
In 1996 a closed-loop “Nature-Technogenic” control system (CLNTCS) was proposed for further development until a concrete engineering solution is achieved. The concept of its creation is aimed at minimizing the human factor, eliminating the time gap between the instant at which the results from the monitoring process are gotten and the start of the corresponding cleaning process of pollutants, eliminating information losses and, as a result, economic costs associated with compensations for accidents, fines, lost profits.

The control loop includes measuring, amplifying and converting, computing, registering and actuation devices (Fig.2). Measuring devices are a wide range of gas sensors analyzers and analyzers of physicochemical water samples, that measure and transmit information about the concentrations of pollutants. They are placed at points with the highest concentration of pollutants by means of mobile carriers.

g and converting and computing devices are in charge of processing, compressing and generating information; transferring it to control and regulating devices, as well as to visualization and registration devices. The actuators change the parameters of the cleaning units in accordance with control aimed at minimizing the concentration of pollutants. The object being controlled in CLNTCS is the source of pollutants. CLNTCS is constructed as a system that is invariant to the main plant which is the enterprise/source of the pollutants.
Fig. 2 The closed-loop “Nature-Technogenic” control system
The automatic “Nature-Technogenic” control system operates in real time, transmitting information online to display devices of all levels - from the management of the organization producing the pollutants to the people making decisions at the federal level.

The CLNTCS transfers the role of solving the problem of environmental pollution from humans and by human factors, which usually involves a lot of reports, official signatures and approvals, to computer appliances (CA), where the human-operator role is reduced to only controlling the operation of the CA and its individual elements. This approach fundamentally reduces the risks of environmental pollution and also removes direct inclusion of human factor in the system.

Advantages of the proposed conceptual and technical solutions are:
●  a control system which minimizes pollutants in the areas of human activity and is closed-looped, thereby maximizing the efficiency of the system;
●  placement of pollution measuring sensors in areas of highest concentration of pollutants, which essentially increases the reliability of the measured information;
●  formation of control laws governing the hardware components of the devices used for eliminating pollutants in accordance with the criteria of any given concrete system being controlled;
●  elimination of imported elements, which ensures a low cost of the entire system.
CA solve the following tasks:
●  improving the quality and efficiency of the strategy taken to  improve the environmental situation;
●  compensation for damage to the environment through the implementation of full control over the emissions and discharges of facilities that are sources of pollution;
●  growth of income through preference in favor of industrial enterprises that have achieved a high level of eco-rating in the well-known classes of "ECO A++", "ECO A+", "ECO A", as well as the purposeful and consistent implementation of international environmental standards in relation to industrial enterprises with lower eco-rating level.

Process of phasing-out imported elements is based on advanced and scientifically-based technologies, with a noticeable demand in such profitable market. These proposed elements, which have no analogues in domestic and foreign practice, make it possible to really take a leading role not only in the Russian market, but also in the international ecological market. As a result of the researches carried out, the development and construction of pilot CA (CA-1, CA-2, and CA-3 for various sources of pollutants) is readied.

The basic CA-1 includes miniature unmanned aerial vehicles (MUAV), devices and software for measurement, processing and controlling of the processes that minimizes pollutants at source facilities without interfering with the technological process of the facilities. CA-1 also solves the problem of environmental monitoring of the movement of pollutants, including cross-border monitoring. CA-1 operates in real time on the basis of both fixed ground control observation stations and with the use of MBLA.

CA-1 consists of:
●  miniature unmanned aerial vehicles (MUAV) with onboard equipment for data collection and the positioning of MUAV;
●  mobile ground laboratory for the analysis of pollutant samples;
●  ground control center for flights, processing information and the generation of control commands on purification units;
●  communication and local area networks which allows for the transmission and processing of control information, as well as a visual representation of the system being controlled.
CA-2 and CA-3 are of similar composition.

The main consumers of the proposed product intended for production are industrial enterprises, the divisions of the “Russia Service for Supervision of Natural Resource Usage” at federal and regional levels and other environmental organizations, as well as enterprises of other countries on the basis of international treaties. In addition, manufacturers of devices and elements that constitute part of CLNTCS (sensors for the concentration of pollutants, controllers, unmanned aerial vehicles, telecommunication devices, etc.) are interested in the development process of CLNTCS and corresponding CA. A preliminary assessment of CA sales indicates that the costs of creating CA will be recuperated within one year. In the future, enterprises and supervisory organizations that have CAs in their arsenal, will get an efficient level of steady profit and can successfully operate in domestic and foreign ecological markets.

In the concept development of CLNTCS for mobile sources of pollutants, a neutralization closed-loop control system for the exhaust gases of automobiles (NCLCSEGA) is proposed. In Fig. 3 NCLCSEGA is shown in the form of a functional flow block diagram.
Fig.3. Functional flow block diagram of the neutralization closed-loop control system of exhaust gases of automobiles
There are various known methods of increasing the operation efficiency of systems of neutralization. The work of catalysts in control systems of neutralization that does not include measured concentrations of NOx, CO, CH, does not ensure the rational use of these catalysts.

The proposed project is characterized by the fact that the car's exhaust gas meters which are part of the closed-loop control system are built into the car's exhaust system, the signals gotten from measuring the concentration of harmful exhaust gases of the car are transmitted to the visualization tools of the driver and the technical operator (who is in charge of technical supervision). Control signals of compensation units for the emitted exhaust gasses change the setting in the compensation units towards minimizing these emissions only at the required time with reference to the coordinates of a moving or standing car.

The technical result achieved with the implementation of the proposed device (see Fig. 4) is an increase in the purification efficiency of exhaust gas and reliability of (resource) catalyst due to the addition of carbon monoxide concentration sensor (3), nitrogen oxide concentration sensor (4), hydrocarbon concentration sensor (5), harmful emission indicator unit for the driver (7) and the technical supervisor (8), unit for wireless communication with the catalyst heater control unit (6), and the input with the GLONASS transmitter (here 6.1 - GSM wireless connection transmitter unit with the catalyst heater control unit, 6.2 - GLONASS transmitter wireless unit, 6.3 - catalyst heater control unit).

The local system differs from the system with the inclusion of GLONASS units by replacing blocks 6-1 and 6-2 with the corresponding connections inside the car.
Fig.4 Interaction of NCLCSEGA blocks
The embedded control systems are applied to CLNTCS and NCLCSEGA as they are important elements of the functioning of these systems. In this field, developments are being conducted on digital regulators of instruments and devices.

The main consumers of the proposed product are:
●  administration of communities and relevant bodies of the State Service for Supervision of Natural Resource Usage, as they are responsible for reducing pollutants in the atmosphere;
●  private car owners, as their health is important to them;
●  heads of automobile enterprises, as they are responsible for the eco-condition of all vehicles in the enterprise;
●  developers of CO, CH, NOx sensors for cars, as they need customers;
●  developers of car exhaust systems, as their task is to reduce emissions;
●  car production managers, as they have to reduce the costs of producing cars, increase their market while simultaneously meeting norms, state standard specifications, etc.
●  developers of the GLONASS system, as commercial projects are needed for recuperating the costs of GLONASS, of which implementation this system demands.

Digital design and production systems including CAD systems, CAM systems, automatic control systems, etc., allow for the development of CLNTCS and NCLCSEGA from just an idea to the production of finished product. The creation of such systems is based on the many years of work by people at IEHS, developing CAD systems, CAM systems and other information systems in digital design and production.

Related publications
1. Proceedings of the international conference “Instrument Engineering in Ecology and Human Safety” (IEHS Proc.):
● IEHS’96. St. P.: RSSC RTC, 1996;
● IEHS’98. St. P.: RSSC RTC, 1998;
● IEHS’2002. St. P.: SUAI, 2002;
● IEHS’2004. St. P.: SUAI, 2004;
● IEHS’2007. St. P.: SUAI, 2007.
2. Rating Agency “Expert RA” and World Wildlife Fund (WWF), 2007.
3. Problem of the National Value (editorial article) // Electric Inspection Service-inform. 2008. No.1 (35), P. 2.
4. Solnitsev R., Katayev A., Mashkov A. “The “Nature-Technogenic” Closed-Loop Control System: Innovation Studies in Ecology”// Electric Inspection Service-inform. 2008. No.1 (35), P. 30-31.
5. Solnitsev R., Korshunov G. “Nature-Technogenic” Control Systems St. P.: Ed. Polytechnika. 2013. 204 p.
6. Official statement “Bases of the state policy in the field of ecological development of Russia for the period till 2030 are approved” URL: http://www.kremlin.ru/events/president/news/15177
7. Report “The implementation plan of the state program of the Russian Federation “Environmental protection” for 2012-2020 in 2014 and in the planning period of 2015 and 2016”. URL: http://www.mnr.gov.ru/regulatory/detail.php?ID=134733
8. Solnitsev R., Korshunov G., Baranova O. The Closed-Loop Neutralization Control System of Vehicle Exhaust Gases//Information control systems, 2015. No.2 (75). P. 37-42.
9. Solnitsev R. I., Karimov A. I., Karimov T. I. [el al]. Designer Workstation for Digital Controllers of Command Devices // Information and Control Systems, 2015. № 6 (79). P. 66-70. doi:10.15217/issn1684-8853.2015.6.66
10. Solnitsev R. I., Korshunov G. I. Mathematical and Methodical Support of Ecosystem for Neutralization of Vehicle Exhaust Gases // Innovations, 2015. № 11 (203). P. 125-128.
11. Solnitsev R. I., Do Xuan Cho. “Construction of Computer Appliance for the «Nature - Technogeniс» Control System” // XIX Intern. Conf. on Soft Computing and Measurement (SCM-2016). SPb. May 25-27, 2016. Vol. 2. P. 239-241.
12. Solnitsev R. I., Shamray Y. L. “CAD Construction for Smart Angle Trasnformers” // XIX Intern. Conf. on Soft Computing and Measurement (SCM-2016). SPb. May 25-27, 2016. Vol. 2. P. 145-147.
13. Patent on the application № 2006124948/28, 10.04.2009. Solnitsev R. I., Korshunov G. I., Grudinin V. P. Method of Reducing the Air Polluting through Closed-Loop Control System // Russian Federation Patent for Invention № 2351975. 2009. Bull. № 10.
14. Patent on the application № 2012145342, 10.02.2014. Solnitsev R. I., Korshunov G. I. Catalytic Neutralizer when Motor Vehicle Wastes Gases into Air // Russian Federation Patent for Invention № 2511776. 2014. Bull. № 10.
15. Patent on the application № G06F15/02, 27.09.2005. Slyusarenko A. S., Lebedev A. V. «Shturman-1» Calculator // Russian Federation Paternt for Invention № 48230. 2005.
16. Patent on the invention № 2015121466, 07.06.2017. Vopilovskij P. N., Dmitrevich G. D., Nguen N. M., Solnitsev R. I. [at al.] Method of forming an individual endoprosthesis of a pelvis joint // Russian Federation Patent for Invention № 2621874. 2017. Bull. № 16.
17. Solnitsev R. I., Korshunov G. I., Ryzhov N. G., Do Xuan Cho, Paranichev A. V. The Nature-Technogenic Control System Design Information Maintenance // 2017 XX International Conference on Soft Computing and Measurements (SCM). SPb.: IEEE, 2017. May 24-26. P. 662-665.
18. Karimov T. I., Solnitsev R. I., Butusov D. N., Ostrovsky V. Yu. Algorithm for the synthesis of compact digital controllers in fixed-point arithmetic// Scientific and Technical Journal of Information Technologies, mechanics and optics. 2018. Vol. 18. No. 3. P. 493-504. doi: 10.17586/2226-1494-2018-18-3-493-504
19. Solnitsev R. I., Khankov V. Yu., Matveeva I. V., Gracheva D. A. Management of organizations through results gotten by removing uncertainties // Soft calculations and measurements. SPb.: Publishing house Etu "LETI". 2018. Vol.1. Section 2. C. 300-303.
20. Kupriyanov G. A., Solnitsev R. I. Problems of designing and operating an environmental infrastructure as a single complex system // Ecological Information Systems // Soft computing and measurement. SPb.: Publishing house Etu "LETI". 2018. Vol. 2 Section 6. C. 195-198.
21. Solnitsev R. I., Malina A. S. Hierarchical macromodeling method for the analysis of multidimensional and multi-connected automatic control systems. News of SPbGETU "LETI", 2018. №8. P. 13-18.
22. Korhunov G. I., Solnitsev R. I. System catalyst neutralization control of combustion engines waste gases in mining technologies// IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 87 042008 DOI:10.1088/1755-1315/87/4/042008 , 2018.
23. Solnitsev R. I., Korhunov G. I., Petrushevskaya A. A. Design of the closed control system for cars waste gases neutralization // IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 2018.
24. Solnitsev R. I., Korshunov G. I., Petrushevskaya A. A., . Paranichev A. V. Cyber-physical systems in environmental security and the geo-monitoring of transport (Research, design, production) SPbGETU "LETI", 2019, 200 p. (in press)
25. Kupriyanov, G. A., Solnitsev, R. I. Designing the infrastructure for the separate collection and recycling of secondary raw materials. // Thes. I International Conference WASTE’2018